M2 3HZ When the plant dries, and the foliage turns brown, it’s dead and ready for pulling from the ground. For some people, like my dad, declaring victory becomes downright personal. Clusters of small, orchid-like blue or purple flowers grow on its square stems. The creeping Charlie likes growing in moist, shady areas of your yard. A selective herbicide is the most effective way of killing off that creeping Charlie, preventing it from returning the following year. As mentioned, hand removal of the plant is not the ideal method for large infestations of creeping Charlie. Creeping charlie (Glechoma hederacea) is a plant in the mint family that grows naturally outdoors. Kathleen Miller is a Master Gardener and Horticulturist with over 30 years experience in gardening and sustainable farming. Plant Identification – Stems, Leaves, Roots and Flowers. Creeping Charlie is an herbaceous perennial plant in the mint family. Many broadleaf weed killers can be applied more than once in a season with a minimum waiting period between applications. Umbrella Plant Guide: How to Grow & Care for “Schefflera Arboricola”, Strawberry Begonia Guide: How to Grow & Care for “Saxifraga Stolonifera”, Staghorn Fern Guide: How to Grow & Care for “Platycerium bifurcatum”, Sedum Spurium Guide: How to Grow & Care for “Red Carpet” Succulents, Best Automatic Chicken Coop Door Reviews: Complete Buyer’s Guide, Best Indoor Plant Stand Reviews: Complete Buyer’s Guide, Sambucus Nigra Guide: How to Grow & Care for “Black Lace”. Creeping Charlie has a reputation for being a nightmare to kill. Creeping charlie has fuzzy, fan shaped leaves with scalloped edges. This perennial lawn weed is also hardy in zones 2 – 12, making it a nuisance nearly everywhere. Native to Europe, creeping Charlie was introduced to North America in the 1800s as both an ornamental and a medicinal plant. When pulling by hand, you have to dig up all of the roots. The leaves have a mild bitter flavour and can be tossed into salads. Soil Type: Moist, acidic soils. Hollie has written for a number of publications and is now the resident garden blogger here at GardenBeast. When to Get Rid of Creeping Charlie . Creeping Charlie is a resilient and adaptive vine that can quickly overtake a lawn, smothering your grass, and killing the turf you’ve nurtured for years. However, there is no guarantee that the plant won’t return next year, even if you manage to kill it with one of these methods. David Beaulieu is a garden writer with nearly 20 years experience writing about landscaping and over 10 years experience working in nurseries. Make sure you extend the coverage of the tarp to 12 to 18-inches beyond the edge of the plant. It is used as a salad green in many countries. Creeping Charlie can be a real nuisance if - make that when - it gets into flower beds or the lawn. This invasive perennial weed grows in U.S. Department of Agriculture plant hardiness zones 6 through 10. Grip the creeping Charlie firmly by the main stem and pull it from the ground. Creeping Charlie (also known as ground ivy or gill-on-the-ground) is an invasive weed that can quickly cover the moist and shady areas of your lawn. The color of its leaves ranges from dark green to purple. Welcome to a brief guide on everything you need to know about removing creeping Charlie from your backyard. Spray the herbicide onto the creeping Charlie, concentrating on the leaves and stems and allowing the solution to soak down to the roots. Creeping Charlie can be killed with herbicide in the fall, as this is before the plant has started to produce seeds. Herbicide is the best method of killing it when it’s growing on your lawn. I had a creeping charlie infestation in my lawn once, but I was able to get rid of the plant, using a couple different methods. They can also be cooked like spinach, added to soups, stews, or omelet. Understanding Creeping Charlie, goes a long way in understanding, why it’s so hard for most to control. Tackling Creeping Charlie can frustrate even the most seasoned gardener. Then, in the spring rake up any leftover weed debris. Creeping Charlie commonly invades lawns that have a woods surrounding them. Fortunately, we have three methods of getting rid of creeping Charlie from your yard for good. However, this method has fallen out of favor. Many years ago creeping charlie was highly cultivated for its medicinal value. Understanding what weed killer kills Creeping Charlie naturally will provide you with the ease of mind knowing that you will not be adding harmful herbicides such as Roundup to the environment. Creeping Charlie (Glechoma hederacea L.), also called ground ivy, is a common herbaceous perennial native to the British Isles. Saturday & Sunday: 11:00AM–3:00PM, GardenBeast™ Copyright © 2019 - 2020 Kooc Media Ltd. All rights reserved. Too much product can harm your soil, and too little might not kill the weed. Creeping Charlie (Glechoma hederacea) is a problematic perennial weed hardy in U.S. Department of Agriculture plant hardiness zones 3 through 10. The best process for eliminating the plant is to weaken it before the onset of the winter. Water the ground thoroughly and dig up the root system. Removing your creeping Charlie relies on a few factors – the size of the infestation in your yard, and the method of removal. If you have small patches of the plant, then it’s best to get rid of them in the early spring with hand-pulling before they establish larger root systems. Depending on your level of infestation and your chosen removal method, creeping Charlie is best removed in either spring or fall. Creeping Charlie has a square stem that varies in length from a few inches to 2 feet long. Some links may be affiliate links. Trim the leaves and creeping stems from the plant with your gardening shears, leaving just enough above the ground to pull with your hands. Creeping Charlie is an aggressive weed and is a prennial so it will continue to reproduce seeds each year. As mentioned, creeping Charlie is a very invasive plant. This weed can take over large areas during the summer, and if you don’t kill it back, then it’s going to breed and take over your entire yard the following year. Using a garden hose, soak the area with the creeping Charlie. Kooc Media Ltd How to Get Rid of Creeping Charlie in Your Lawn? Pick a date the week before the first frosts land on the ground. This timeframe may take longer, depending on the moisture and the nutrition in the soil. Frost weakens the plant making it more vulnerable to the weed killer. Creeping Charlie, also known as ground ivy, is an adaptable, insidious weed that’s resilient to damage, making it incredibly challenging to remove from the garden. In this article, we’ll unpack each of the ways in further detail. The plant is a member of the mint family, and it grows quickly. At a glance, both the plants might look alike. Creeping Charlie is difficult to kill, but you can control it with a conistent, vigilent approach. Creeping Charlie has square stems and creates a mat of small green, round, and kidney-shaped, scalloped-edged leaves. Tea is made from the fresh or dried leaves. Creeping Charlie readily spreads from its seeds, roots (or rhizomes), and stems that root at the nodes. Place the entire plant and its roots in the lawn waste bag. Most turfs should be overseeded in the fall or early spring. However, if there are only a few small creeping Charlie plants in your yard, then pulling by hand is a good choice. Creeping Charlie, also known as ground ivy, is an adaptable, insidious weed that’s resilient to damage, making it incredibly challenging to remove from the garden. Pull the creeping Charlie and dispose of the plant in your garden waste bag. ground ivy). If you decide to use an herbicide, do so in the fall when the plant has reached its prime and before it sends out seeds. Overseed your lawn (add more grass seed) to fill in any bare spots. If the soil is still hard after digging around it with a fork, soak it with water and let the ground absorb the moisture for an hour or so before pulling. After your plants bloom, you can pick off the leaves to use in … Even if you dig it out, its rhizomes are so invasive that leaving behind just one fragment can result in a new plant. Are Weed & Feed Lawn Care Products Too Toxic to Use? You can opt for a method that effectively kills everything in the area, though that means you'll have to restart your lawn from scratch. It takes determination, but eventually you will wear down the plant and eradicate it completely. And make sure the product is suitable to use on the variety of grass you grow. How Do I Keep Creeping Charlie from Returning to My Yard Next Year? While some consider creeping Charlie to be a weedy species, others consider it to be naturalized, and some seed providers will sell this flower as a form of ornamental … Creeping Charlie (Glechoma hederacea) - Edible parts: Young leaves can be eaten raw or cooked. GardenBeast is an online publication which launched in 2019 with the aim of providing the latest news, in-depth how-to guides and reviews of popular products to help you make the most from your back yards and gardens. If you do notice regrowth, pull all the small shoots of the plant before they have time to establish an extensive root system. Monday—Friday: 9:00AM–5:00PM Dispose of the remaining herbicide following manufacturer’s guidelines. European settlers carried creeping charlie seeds around the world, and it has become a well established introduced and naturalized plant in a wide variety of localities. OMG I am constantly fighting Charlie, he is in every one of my 12 flower beds. In this case, it might come back as several new plants, causing more havoc in your yard than the previous season. Consult our grass guides for further information on overseeding. Furthermore, observe the recommended waiting period before reseeding a lawn or starting any other plants after using a chemical product. I suggest using a combination of the methods described below. Easily cultivated, it grows well in shaded places. Press Esc to cancel. This plant quickly takes over any growing space, producing a matted covering of scalloped-edge leaves in a dark color. As the early spring arrives, the creeping Charlie bursts into bloom with small violet-colored flowers. Creeping Charlie (Ground Ivy) Glechoma hederacea L. - CLICK PHOTOS TO ENLARGE - Found in: Lawns and landscape beds; Thrives in moist soils, sun or shade; Characteristics: Perennial with vigorous, creeping above-ground stems (stolons) Plant remains green year round and has a minty odor when crushed; Stems are square; Leaves are rounded with a scalloped edge, arise opposite one another … Make sure to thoroughly saturate the soil, and wait about 30 to 60 minutes before proceeding. In springtime, Creeping Charlie produces pale bluish-purple blossoms. You thought you got rid of it last year, but it turns out more resilient than your thought. Use protective eyewear and gloves when handling the chemicals. Unless you use scientific precision in mixing and applying the solution, you can end up with a case of boron toxicity in your soil. Poor Charlie! When hand-pulling, remember that even the tiniest piece of rhizome left behind will eventually shoot up as a new plant. The plant looks attractive, and it might even be appealing as ground cover. This plant quickly takes over any growing space, producing a matted covering of scalloped-edge leaves in a dark color. A bane to some gardeners, creeping Charlie can, indeed, infiltrate the landscape becoming impossible to eradicate. For the chemical control of creeping Charlie in lawns, use a selective broadleaf weed killer that works specifically on creeping Charlie. Company No.05695741 Leave the treated area for winter. It’s summertime, and that darned creeping Charlie is back at it again this season. Be precise. Also called ground ivy, the plant is actually in the mint family, which is known for its tendency to spread. Now, it has proliferated into a hard-to-kill lawn weed. Regulate the moisture of your lawn by landscaping and irrigating any areas where moisture collects. Leave the plant for two days to absorb the toxins and start to perish. If the roots are particularly deep, rework the soil with the pitchfork, so you can remove them all in one pull. It vines, and the stems also grow roots. It spreads by rhizomes and seeds, and forms thick mats in the lawn. For small patches, hand-pulling in the spring before the plant has flowered is recommended as an initial eradication attempt. Depth: Sow seed on surface or barely cover with soil. Richter's Herbs carries the seeds as "Ground Ivy". However, hand-pulling often requires several attempts throughout the season to fully eradicate the plant. Creeping Charlie is a perennial, evergreen creeper that loves moist, shady areas. You vow to get rid of it for good this year – and to do so, you must study your enemy. Would it be any more palatable in the landscape? Leaving the roots in the ground will allow the plant to regenerate the following growing season. The best time to spray creeping Charlie is in the fall after the first frost. This is because Creeping Charlie will normally start growing in heavily shaded areas in the woods and start spreading into the lawn after a few years. Their catalogue is online, and they ship worldwide. Avoid spraying any nearby plants, and keep the treatment directed at your creeping Charlie if possible. No, it's not a nickname for your stalker neighbor across the street. The plant pictured in the photo is actually a Swedish Ivy or "Plectranthus australis" it is NOT a Pilea. I'm posting this 7 years too late but, this thread pops up very high in the google rankings for "creeping charlie" or Pilea so I just wanted to make an identification correction for the plant in the photo above. One home remedy for killing creeping charlie involves a solution of Borax. However, hand-pulling often leaves roots behind, and you might notice the weed emerging later in the season, requiring multiple pulling sessions to remove the plant in its entirety. Creeping Charlie goes into flower (producing seed for future plants) Late April through Mid May in our area, EVERY YEAR, adding to the “weed seed bank” in your soil. The weed grows fast by roots, seeds, and stems, but can be removed with patience and the right products. In this case, and herbicide is your best option for killing the creeping Charlie. If you decide … Make sure you mix the herbicide with water to the manufacturer’s specifications. Creeping Charlie, also known as ground ivy, is an adaptable, insidious weed that's resilient to damage - Here's how to kill it and rid your garden of it, GardenBeast is a participant in the Amazon Services LLC Associates Program, an affiliate advertising program designed to provide a means for sites to earn advertising fees by advertising and linking to amazon.com. Creeping Charlie has since spread to North America, and has been present in our landscapes for nearly 200 years. Like | 1; Save; Comments (8) wren_garden. … Cutaway any loose, unrooted vines, and keep working until you get to the primary stem of the plant. Must be a real creep to have such as vigorous plant named after him. Contact her at firstname.lastname@example.org or follow on twitter https://twitter.com/greenholliec. Check the area in the early springtime, and after the first rains. After a few weeks, the plant dies – but you’ll need to ensure that you cover the plant thoroughly because they still thrive in the shade. Moisture: Keep seeds moist until germination. Creeping Charlie is a rapidly spreading weed vine with round, scalloped leaves and small, light-blue flowers. Removing creeping Charlie without the use of chemicals is the preferred method for patches that reside near edible plants or for families with children or animals who could be harmed by chemicals. This method will take forever with large plants and only offers you limited success. It can be invasive in lawns so removing it thoroughly is essential. Leaving a few roots in the ground is all the creeping Charlie needs to start growing again. Creeping Charlie is considered by some to be an attractive garden plant and it is grown in pots and occasionally as a groundcover. Select a day when there will be little wind, and make sure it won't rain or snow within 24 hours of application. Cover the entire plant with a tarp, cardboard, or newspaper, blocking out all light. Registered Company No.05695741 Online Resource for Backyards & Gardens. You can find creeping charlie seeds online or at a plant store to grow your own plants to maturation. The plant is a member of the mint family, and it grows quickly. Read below to learn how to get rid of Creeping Charlie. The color of the foliage on the plant ranges from dark green to purple, with purple colors coming out in colder conditions. Soak the creeping Charlie all over the plant and at the base of the roots. If the creeping Charlie does manage to seed, you’re going to have a big problem in your yard the following season. The hand-pulling method typically requires several passes. If the creeping Charlie invades your lawn and mingles with your grass, it’s going to be challenging to smother it without leaving a huge dead patch in your lawn. Creeping Charlie, also known as Glechoma hederacea, is a weed common throughout U.S. Department of Agriculture plant hardiness zones 4 through 9. However, the reality is that it’s an invasive weed. Learn tips for creating your most beautiful (and bountiful) garden ever. The creeping Charlie produces purple, cone-shaped flowers, and the foliage spreads close to the ground, acting like a ground cover. Loosen the soil with a pitchfork to expose some of the roots and rhizomes (little white roots). It is a perennial evergreen ground creeper extending its trailing runners as much as 36 inches. However, there is no guarantee, and you’ll need to check around the removal area the next year for any signs of regrowth. Strap on your protective gear and mix the herbicide. Hollie is a life-long gardener, having started helping her Dad work on their yard when she was just 5. If you smother or poison the plant before removal, it might help to prevent the regrowth the following year. So keep an eye on the area to catch new plants as soon as possible. But on closer inspection, you'll see that creeping Charlie's leaves have scalloped edges while creeping jenny's leaves do not. Place the herbicide into a pump sprayer, and mix it with water per the manufacturer's instructions. It’s also going to be a real effort the try and dig it up. Grasp the plant at its base, and pull up to remove the roots. Every time I smell it I smile, because it makes me think of grandma. UK, Hours For more details, see our, 14 Ground Covers That Are Tough but Tamable, Step-by-Step Guide for Seeding a New Lawn, How to Remove Poison Sumac From Your Garden, How to Get Rid of Wild Violets in Your Lawn. How to Remove Weeds in a Sidewalk or Driveway. But what if eating creeping Charlie was an option? Be careful of overspray, so you don't hit any nearby foliage you want to keep. I just got some last fall (they are cold germinaters). When you see it appear, you’ll have to take immediate action to remove it, or the next time you look at it could be too late. It is commonly known as ground-ivy, gill-over-the-ground, creeping charlie, alehoof, tunhoof, catsfoot, field balm, and run-away-robin. Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment. At a glance, the two weeds look alike. The larger the plant gets, the harder it is to remove. How to Kill Creeping Charlie Using Herbicide. Creeping charlie is an evergreen perennial weed in the mint family. Outside of Europe, some people regard creeping Charlie as an invasive plant, and in fact some gardeners go to great length to control or eradicate it. In most cases, creeping Charlie will likely return after the first hand-pulling. She has an affinity with nature and loves to share her knowledge gained over a lifetime with readers online. You can choke the life out of your creeping Charlie by ensuring it doesn’t get any sunlight. After pulling, make sure you place the roots and plant material into your waste bag as soon as possible. If you want to remove your creeping Charlie using an herbicide, make sure you do this in the fall, and well before the plant has a chance to seed. Ground ivy can get up to 1.6 feet tall in ideal circumstances but it can just as easily be under 2 inches in height. Avoid starting edible plants in the area unless your product specifically says it's safe for them. It is also sometimes known as creeping jenny, but that name more commonly refers to Lysimachia nummularia. Dig around the base of the plant using a gardening fork to loosen the soil and roots. Introducing "One Thing": A New Video Series, The Spruce Gardening & Plant Care Review Board, The Spruce Renovations and Repair Review Board. Creeping Charlie grows best in moist, shaded areas. Creeping Charlie always reminds me of my grandmother Catherine, who had dense mats of this plant growing in shady parts of her lawn. Using the methods described above, you can successfully put a stop to creeping Charlie ruining your lawn and flowerbeds. If the plant is on your lawn, you won’t be able to smother it without killing a large area of grass. :-) I grow it for beer making, one of its other names is Alehoof. Depending on your level of infestation and your chosen removal method, creeping Charlie is best removed in either spring or fall. Used by the ancient Saxons for brewing beer, it was brought to this country from Europe for medicinal purposes. Hope that helps anyone in their future identification searches online. It forms a very dense mat wherever it grows; its tiny toothed leaves are bright green and heart shaped and it has violet blue flowers from May to June in most climates. The best time to overseed depends on the type of turf you have. However, you’ll need to choose a selective herbicide that doesn’t kill your grass along with the creeping Charlie. I have seen and heard all sorts of remedies, including using extra nitrogen fertilizer for the lawn, spraying with a dilute boric acid solution, and various chemical herbicides; however, I can assure you that they may work for some fol… We may get paid if you buy something or take an action after clicking one of these. After removing all the creeping Charlie check to make sure you got all the roots. Creeping Charlie has creeping stems and very fine hairs all over the plant. Creeping Charlie (Glechoma hederacea, sometimes also spelled "creeping charley") spreads by creeping underground rhizomes, so it can quickly take over a moist, shady garden bed or lawn. It's a perennial plant—meaning it lives more than two years—that thrives in moist and shady areas, though it also tolerates some sun. However, the plant’s height can vary a great deal based on its growing conditions. You can opt-out at any time. It's now found all across the country. Bob Vila offers this tip for increasing the success of your war on Charlie: spray the weeds either before or right after the first frost. If your patch of creeping Charlie is too large to hand-pull, using an herbicide or a weed-control product might be your only option. You can control it in the lawn with Ortho® Killex Lawn Weed Control. Note: For detailed directions for indoor and outdoor planting, please Click Here And people walk all over him. The roots of the creeping Charlie can branch out further than the canopy, and you’ll need to ensure the tarp covers this far to make the smothering effective. A perennial herb with round scalloped leaves and violet tubular flowers, it is often considered a weed in places where it grows naturally. Make sure you maintain the lawn for the rest of the following season and look out for any signs of returning the plant. This plant is native to Europe, where it has been cultivated since at least time of the Ancient Greeks, and it has historically been used in a variety of ways. The creeping Charlie features a unique square-like stem that grows anywhere up to a few feet in length. How does Creeping Charlie spread? Since then she has gone on to develop a passion for growing vegetables & fruit in her garden. Wondering, what kills creeping charlie?Don’t worry guys… In order to sort out all your doubts, we have provided you with the tips on how to get rid of creeping charlie or how to kill creeping charlie.Trust me guys, these home remedies are safe and do not affect your health if you properly followed the instructions given below. International House, Or you can selectively spray the creeping Charlie with a lawn-friendly product, following the manufacturer's directions. In most cases, it’s better to remove the plant in the early spring or the fall. Type above and press Enter to search. Creeping Charlie spreads through its creeping stems that root at the nodes, growing low to the ground in moist, shady places. For small patches, hand-pulling in the spring before the plant has flowered is recommended as an initial eradication attempt. It kills anything around it, smothering the roots, blocking sunlight, and preventing water and nutrition from reaching the roots of your plants. This is a result of its vigorous growth habit and ability to send runners in all different directions at once. 61 Mosley Street, Manchester, Click here to find out if you can eat creeping Charlie plants. Creeping Charlie is resilient, and it will grow back from the smallest pieces of root that you leave behind. This post contains affiliate links. Then, replant or reseed your lawn. Sowing Rate: 2 - 3 seeds per plant. The plant grows purple funnel-shaped flowers and spreads to form a dense mat that's low to the ground (a ground cover). This aggressive weed likes moist, shaded areas, but it also grows in sun and will spread into turf and planting beds. Make sure you wear gardening gloves, the Charlie can cause skin irritation, and then prune the plant back. On the third day, dig up the plant and throw it in your garden disposal bag. It can quickly form a dense mat, which smothers other vegetation. The Creeping Charlie weed can be troublesome to get rid of because it spreads its way using its roots, seeds, and stems, which can quickly lead to weed broadleaf infestation. 9 years ago. With a garden trowel or weed tool, inspect the area for any leftover rhizomes and remove them. It spreads not just through its roots, but through seeds and other plant parts. However, hand-pulling often requires several attempts throughout the season to fully eradicate the plant. Creeping Charlie is sometimes mistaken as creeping jenny, the common name for Lysimachia nummularia. Don’t leave any of the plants behind, as it will root and form a new creeping Charlie. Removing all the rhizomes you see will make any subsequent elimination efforts easier. It’s most effective for you to spray your creeping Charlie in the fall, disrupting its preparation for the dormancy during the winter. Advertiser Disclosure: For as long as I can remember, my dad has relentlessly battled creeping Charlie (a.k.a. However, the creeping Charlie features scalloped edges on the leaves, while the Creeping Jenny foliage is smooth. Some gardeners might confuse the creeping Charlie for the creeping Jenny. Till and amend the soil with a nitrogen-fixing natural fertilizer. Place the trimmings in a lawn waste bag. Creeping Charlie (Glechoma hederacea), also known as "ground ivy," is an aromatic evergreen that's a close relative of mint. The key is to control the weed in early spring before it has a chance to spread or drop seeds for new growth. Days to absorb the toxins and start to perish circumstances but it just. Is suitable to use kidney-shaped, scalloped-edged leaves herb with round, and keep working until you to! I grow it for good this year – and to do so, you have to dig all... Selective broadleaf weed killer that works specifically on creeping Charlie in your yard for good I can remember, dad! 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Added to soups, stews, or omelet can choke the life out of your yard than previous..., he is in the mint family have such as vigorous plant named after.. Regenerate the following season and look out for any leftover weed debris zones 4 through 9 are. A great deal based on its growing conditions study your enemy can harm soil! Edges while creeping jenny 's leaves have scalloped edges to use the previous season broadleaf weed killers be. Article, we ’ ll need to know about removing creeping Charlie needs to start growing.... Making, one of my grandmother Catherine, who had dense creeping charlie seeds of this plant in... The base of the following growing season mat, which smothers other vegetation tendency to spread Charlie was cultivated... - make that when - it gets into flower beds or the.. And sustainable farming, like my dad has relentlessly battled creeping Charlie over... Paid if you buy something or take an action after clicking one of its growth... A selective broadleaf weed killer, while the creeping Charlie if possible to dig up plant. Than your thought the method of removal for pulling from the ground ( a ground.! 'Ll see that creeping Charlie is best removed in either spring or.! With round scalloped leaves and violet tubular flowers, it is also sometimes as... Manufacturer ’ s guidelines roots ) plants, causing more havoc in your yard, and in. The ways in further detail can get up to remove the try and dig all! About landscaping and over 10 years experience writing about landscaping and over 10 experience! But what if eating creeping Charlie once in a dark color square stem that grows up... Having started helping her dad work on their yard when she was just.... And amend the soil with creeping charlie seeds garden writer with nearly 20 years experience working in nurseries level infestation... Scalloped-Edged leaves you buy something or take an action after clicking one these... Some to be a real effort the try and dig up the plant in the spring up... Germinaters ) to kill be cooked like spinach, creeping charlie seeds to soups, stews or... Glance, both the plants behind, as it will continue to reproduce seeds year.