[27] Yang Tingzhong from Zhejiang University undertook campaigns and project sponsored by Bloomberg Global Initiative to ban smoking in university campuses at a nationwide scale. The new daily average [after the extended smoking ban] was less than half of what was reported in the first four months of this year, when the city's firefighters had to put out 325 fires caused by cigarette butts, or 2.7 per day.". Awareness of the dangers of smoking, costs, and targeted policies and campaigns have all contributed to this decrease. The industry supports around 20 million jobs, nearly 500,000 of which … Furthermore, physicians in particular may resort to tobacco as a coping mechanism to deal with the day-to-day stress that is associated with long work hours and difficult patient interactions. The Shanghai People's Congress issued the city's first smoking control law in March 2010. Jiang Y, Ong M K, Tong E K, et al. Anyone caught smoking would first be given a warning and then face a fine of 50 to 200 yuan if they resist. [30], The smoking rates from these independent studies are lower than those reported by China's state-run newspaper. On May 20, 2009, the Ministry of Health of China issued a formal decision to completely ban smoking in all health administration offices and medical facilities by the year 2011. [2], Yang Gonghuan, deputy director of the National Center of Disease Control of China, said that progress on tobacco control is not moving quickly because the government derives large tax revenues from tobacco sales, and the industry employs a large workforce. Every day, more than 3,200 children and teens under 18 years old smoke their first cigarette. As of 2018, a high percentage of the world population was covered by … And to tell you the truth, with such a pressure-filled job, smoking is extremely helpful, at times soothing, at times energizing, at times helping me focus my attention when preparing for a complex surgery or facing a stack of paperwork 10:30 at night.[32]. [17], Also, enforcement of national tobacco-control policies is still largely sparse in rural areas, where the state-owned China National Tobacco Corporation exerts much of its influence in tobacco production and marketing. The study warns that if current smoking rates in China prevail, two million … 3. Furthermore, outside the largest cities in China, smoking is considered socially acceptable anywhere at any time, even if it is technically illegal. In 2009, the authorities of Gongan County attempted to increase consumption of locally produced cigarettes, by demanding that local officials smoke up to 23,000 packs of Hubei-branded cigarettes per year. In fact, Chinese physicians who smoke may be able to form closer relationships with patients because of tobacco's role in the local culture as a commodity that promotes unity and friendship. [17] In addition, the cultural basis of smoking in China presents a significant barrier to de facto acceptance and integration of smoking control policies. [29] Fewer smokers also believed that physicians should serve as role models for their patients and that indoor smoking in hospitals should be prohibited. As a response to FCTC recommendations for reduction of access and supply-side tobacco regulation, the Ministry of Health is now targeting farmers to give up tobacco plantation and trying to “convince them that the tobacco industry can be replaced by other industries that are more healthy, sustainable and profitable.”[17], Another potential obstacle is the Chinese tobacco industry's lack of complete compliance with nationally defined policies regarding the correct presentation of warning labels on cigarette packages, which must be readily visible and cover at least 30% of the visible area of the packaging. This decision was reversed after public outcry and coverage by international press. Medical Anthropology 2008, Garfinkel L, Stellman SD. According to one citizen that the public health experts from Fudan interviewed, "Smoking has been banned in public places in several countries. Although China still lags behind many countries in implementing tobacco control policy, the Ministry of Health's May 20 initiative helped to establish more unified smoking controls and codify public health authority at broad administrative levels. Most of them have no knowledge of the facts about smoking … 4. In light of its preparations to host the 2010 World Expo, the city of Shanghai had recently heightened its anti-smoking legislation. Chinese physicians and their smoking knowledge, attitudes and practices. 371), first enacted in 1982 with several amendments subsequently. China is the world’s largest consumer and producer of tobacco.China has about 350 million smokers and produces 42% of the all cigarettes in the world. [11] With an explicitly stated objective of "building smoke-free environments for the sake of enjoying healthy life",[12] the report has received strong support and praise from the Campaign for Tobacco-Free Kids, a U.S. health advocacy group based in Washington, D.C.[11]. [30], As of 2014, two thirds of Chinese men smoked. [22] One most basic concern Shanghai residents have regarding the ban is the lack of clarity regarding who will do the fining and who will report the offenses. A 2004 study conducted among 3,500 Chinese physicians found that 23% were regular smokers. Cigarette smoking among physicians, dentists, and nurses. The practice is controversial because some believe that medical professionals should serve as role models of healthy behavior to their patients, while others believe that doctors should have the right to smoke because it is a personal matter. Smoking bans in lifts, public transport, cinemas, concert halls, airport terminal and escalators had been phased in between 1982 and 1997. The economic burden of smoking estimated in terms of GDP reveals that smoking accounts for approximately 0.7% of China's GDP and approximately 1% of US GDP. [10], However, widespread apathy and tacit acceptance toward smoking policy are likely to predominate within large portions of the Chinese population. Cultural norms from China persist in the city because many Chinese residents are foreign-born, she said: “Sixty percent of men there smoke, while there is a stigma to women smoking.” It may be argued that as responsible and informed adults, Chinese physicians should be given the choice of whether or not to smoke. China has a relatively low social disapproval rate of smoking—according to the International Tobacco Control Policy Evaluation Project (ITC), "only 59% of smokers think that Chinese society disapproves of smoking, the fourth lowest rate of 14 ITC countries surveyed. Also, the most concrete measure that has been taken is that Expo organizers refused a 200 million yuan ($29.3 million) donation from the Shanghai Tobacco Company last year to maintain their "healthy Expo" stance. Tobacco use has been identified as an increasingly popular phenomenon in China, and Chinese physicians have been found to exhibit high smoking rates as well. [4] Nearly 60% of male Chinese doctors are smokers, which is the highest proportion in the world. The facts about smoking in China are scary and getting scarier by the minute: It produces more tobacco than any other country. The seven cities are Tianjin, Chongqing, Shenyang, Harbin, Nanchang, Lanzhou and Shenzhen. An article published in 2009 interviewed a source who claimed that 60% of Chinese male doctors were smokers, a percentage higher than any other country's doctors in the world. [28]. According to Li Zhongyang, the deputy head of the Shanghai Health Promotion Committee, the smoking ban was enacted to protect citizens' health and also promote Shanghai's image as a cosmopolitan city. [12] Various health experts, activists, and public advocacy groups regard the Chinese government's escalating efforts toward tobacco policy as "surely good news for the country's smoking control progress. For every person who dies because of smoking, at least 30 people live with a serious smoking-related illness. "[24], "The survey also showed that 81.6 percent of respondents were eager to stop smoking, or had heard of family members and friends who were considering kicking the habit. They have a slightly higher rate than Japanese physicians (20.2%) and Japanese physicians have a smaller gender discrepancy with 27% male and 7% of female doctors smoking. These taglines are targeted towards bringing attention to the harmful chemicals and long term effects of smoking … However, very few smokers (5%) in the ITC China Survey reported thinking about price as a reason to quit smoking—a sign that prices are too low. [11] Notably, the report agreed with international scientific consensus about secondhand smoke, citing numerous findings from public health authorities in other countries[12] to assert the conclusion that "there is no safe level of exposure to second-hand smoke",[11] that ventilation equipment is ineffective in reducing the harm from exposure to second-hand smoke, and that the most effective protective public health measure against smoking is a legislative ban of smoking in public places. [32], Others may argue that since physicians influence the well-being of the general population, their high smoking rates serve as an unhealthy role model to Chinese citizens. China is the world's largest cigarette producer. On October 11, 2005, China became the 78th country in the world to ratify the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC), an international treaty intended to reduce tobacco-related disease and death. Among smokers, the polls found that 93.5% support a total ban on smoking in all schools, 75.5% support a total ban in hospitals, and 94.3% support a total ban in all public transport. The practice is controversial because some believe that medical professionals should serve as role models of healthy behavior to their patients, while others believe that doctors should have the right to smoke because it is a personal matter. In fact, men are particularly at risk because cigarette use is highly gendered in … Thus it is prohibiting scenes of cigarette brands, people smoking at smoke-free places, minors buying and smoking cigarettes, and other smoking scenes associated with minors. Methods A nationally representative survey of smoking … This measure was intended to bring much-needed revenue to local enterprise; quotas were issued by county authorities to offices under its jurisdiction, which in turn were fined if they failed to consume the demanded quota of cigarettes, or if they were found purchasing other brands of tobacco products. In Chinese culture, smoking is connected to masculine identity as a social activity that is practiced among men to promote feelings of acceptance and brotherhood, which explains why more Chinese male doctors smoke than females. Some 70.6% of non-smokers support some type of smoking ban in bars and restaurants.[11]. Tobacco use has been identified as an increasingly popular phenomenon in China, and Chinese physicians have been found to exhibit high smoking rates as well. The resources that are spent on medical school and hospital training might not be realized fully if physicians die prematurely from higher smoking rates. … The latest amendment enlarges the smoking ban to include indoor workplaces, most public places including restaurants, Internet cafés, public lavatories, beaches and most public parks. The Chinese Association on Tobacco Control (中国控制吸烟协会 Zhōngguó kòngzhì xīyān xiéhuì) is engaged in tobacco control by members of the voluntary sector, including academic, social and mass organizations,[3] as strong enforcement of existing tobacco control laws is not supported by the Chinese Government. A list of 101 catchy no smoking slogans for fighting the cause of smoking. [8] In light of the FCTC, concerns about international image, and strong support from both citizens and domestic health authorities, the Chinese government has become increasingly involved in tobacco prevention and tobacco-related health promotion programs. [4], Smoking is a social custom in the PRC,[1] and giving cigarettes at any social interaction is a sign of respect and friendliness.[1]. ", Despite the popular support for the Shanghai smoking ban, many also feel skeptical about the actual implementation of the law. We barely see people serving cigarettes to each other in European countries or the US. World J Surg 2009. 2. Smoking deaths in China are set to triple to 3 million a year by 2050, according to a new study that examines the devastating toll of rising smoking rates on the country’s male population. China Anti-Smoking Laws Smoking Ban in the Chinese Capital to Move Forward. Here are 44 interesting Smoking facts. "[5], As polls from the 2007 Ministry of Health report showed, there is widespread public approval of smoking bans among residents of urban areas. [29] A study conducted among 800 Chinese male surgeons in 2004 found that 45.2% were smokers and 42.5% had smoked in front of their patients. [29], Male surgeons were found to smoke more than any other specialty. Responding to criticism about the current legislation not being well enforced, Wang Yu, director of the China CDC explained that "This project would create strict legislation to guarantee 100-percent smoke-free public venues and workplaces and figure out a feasible and forceful working mechanism to enforce the smoking ban." In China’s ancient history, tobacco was heralded by military generals to have morale boosting powers and was crucial to the military. "[15], Given the complex and multifaceted nature of political agendas in China, governmental public-health related interests often clash with economic interests. Some have suggested that so long as a cigarette does not interfere with a physician's ability to diagnose and treat patients, smoking should be permitted among health care practitioners. Although there are already some smoking bans in places in these cities, government officials have realized that compliance rate is low and plans to issue a strict ban. smoking prevalence in women aged 14–24 years.13 In 1988, 34% of male and 4% of female junior high school students in China reported smoking at least occasion-ally.4 Vocational/technical high schools had a higher smoking prevalence than other types of schools.12,13 A higher smoking … [File photo: easttobacco.com] Negative Health Effects of Smoking Please update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information. Serving cigarettes … 'I am delighted by such encouraging support from the public, it will help to promote legislation to control tobacco use,' [said] Jiang Yuan, vice-head of the tobacco control office under the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention. Cigarettes are an increasingly gendered health risk in China, according to a new study that reports 68% of Chinese men smoke, compared to just 3.2% of women. In addition to passing the smoking ban, Shanghai legislators have designed a website "Smoke Free Shanghai" [23] to raise anti-smoking awareness. - Source 2. Some of them even smoke boldly in hospitals or schools.”[17] This is problematic because, regardless of whether these professionals continue to smoke out of habit, social custom, or "apparent disregard" for evidence of smoking risk, they are still expected to "behave themselves and set a good example for others in tobacco control," Li says. A physician's personal smoking habits have been shown to influence his or her attitudes toward the dangers of tobacco. The director of our hospital smokes. In practice, it is often the case that only some government offices, schools, museums, some hospitals, and sports venues effectively function as smoke-free areas. 1-5 Smoking Facts 1. [citation needed], The government mentioned, upon the release of the budget in 2009, that a full ban of tobacco import and smoking is technically possible. Some opponents to the smoking ban hold that smoking as a personal choice has nothing to do with public health. However, by March 2010, the Guangzhou Municipal People's Congress prepared to lift the smoking ban in work places, including offices, conference rooms and auditoriums. Shanghai residents point out that despite the fact many shopping malls and all subways and subway stations actually already banned smoking prior to this law, there is low compliance and people often smoke directly in front of NO SMOKING signs. 1. 1 The health burden of smoking … For instance, local exemptions to public indoor smoking bans are often made for small businesses, particularly in the restaurant and entertainment industries. The tobacco industry spends billions of dollars each year on marketing cigarettes. Doctors who smoked were less likely to believe that smoking has a harmful effect on health compared to nonsmokers. We should do the same, at least during the Expo, since it is a cosmopolitan event. Current tax regulations in Chinese tobacco control policy are limited, inconsistent, and tied to the structural intricacies of domestic ownership and control of tobacco production and distribution. In addition to the May 20 measure, numerous provincial and city-level administrations in China have also enacted policies to control the prevalence and health impacts of smoking within the last decade. It has been a major health problem for many decades. [21] While many interviewers found second-hand smoke itself toxic and damaging to citizen's health, a main reason behind popular support for the smoking ban relates to the citizen's concern for Shanghai's image. However, given the decreasing smoking rate in recent years mainly due to increasing tobacco tax, the government currently has no further plans to control sales of tobacco other than by adjusting taxation. A direct positive public health impact of the Beijing smoking ban has manifested in the arena of fire prevention. An economic motivation against physician smoking may be the societal loss that is caused by tobacco use. Current tobacco control legislation in China does not explicitly address gendered or social bases for smoking. Smoking rates of China, Japan, United States and Russia in 2010. We assess sex-specific prevalence and changing patterns of smoking in Chinese adults in the current decade. Prior to enacting the nationwide smoking ban, the Ministry of Health had already maintained active involvement in decrying the negative effects of smoking and striving toward decreased prevalence of tobacco use. [4] The Ministry said that as a "mid-term goal, all health administrations and half of the country's healthcare facilities should be smoke-free by the end of 2010". It has an estimated 350 million smokers — that's 1 in 3 of the world's smokers. Smoking causes cancer, heart disease, stroke, lung diseases, diabetes, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), which includes emphysema and chronic bronchitis. Furthermore, smoking can be considered a personal matter that should not be relevant to the workplace. Public health experts agree that it will be difficult to enforce a strict ban with the large number of smokers present in Shanghai.[20]. China’s smoking habits are ingrained in the population. The study of male and … More than one third of current smokers had smoked in front of their patients and nearly all had smoked during their work shift. [13] From 2009, Projects sponsored by Bloomberg Initiative and directed by Yang Tingzhong were designed as the first program to prohibit all forms of smoking in University campuses in China. A 2015 survey on Chinese adults’ use of tobacco showed that China’s smoking … In order to maintain a robust, sustainable effort in tobacco control, China will particularly need to focus upon the role of public health education in smoking prevention and health promotion. (There … [5] With an ever-increasing Chinese smoking population of over 350 million, the enactment of the May 20 initiative represents an important landmark in China's commitment to tobacco control. China Daily. Chinese physicians have a substantially higher smoking prevalence than doctors in the United States (3.3%) or United Kingdom (6.8%). Physicians who smoke may also have a bias that prevents them from giving accurate information regarding the negative health effects of tobacco to patients. About one-fourth of those smokers live in China and they are the fastest rising market … The new ban will be run as a pilot project under the joint auspices of the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the International Union against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease(UNION). [WHO; Wikipedia “Smoking in the People’s Republic of China”] One of every three cigarettes consumed around the world is smoked in China. And of course, for the sake of the public who would be visiting." [34], China remains one of the three leading countries (along with India and Indonesia) in total number of male smokers, accounted for 51.4% of the world's male smokers in 2015. Because tobacco remains a significant source of both health risks and revenue for municipal and national governing entities,[6] specific Chinese tobacco control policies in different contexts may betray an overall position of ambivalence or inconsistency. There was a significant gender difference, with 41% of male physicians reporting to be smokers but only 1% of female physicians. "[5], The "Decision" also encourages health administration offices to utilize mass media resources and draw upon large-scale publicity campaigns such as World No Tobacco Day in order to "actively promote the importance of implementing a total smoking ban in military and civil health administration offices and medical and health institutions. However, due to the Chinese government's complex relationship with tobacco policy (for instance, many localities rely upon tobacco tax revenue as a substantial source of income),[6] there have been many concerns about the practicality of the national policy's enforcement. Tobacco control legislation does exist, but public enforcement is rare to non-existent outside the most highly internationalized cities, such as Shanghai and Beijing. This dossier presents a range of statistics and facts about smoking in Italy. [24] The ban had a generally strong impact, with poll results suggesting that a majority of Chinese residents (69% out of over 10000 respondents) are "not only aware of a smoking ban in Beijing, but [95% of respondents] also hope that the authorities promote the move nationwide. Smoking in China is prevalent, as the People's Republic of China is the world's largest consumer and producer of tobacco:[1] there are 350 million Chinese smokers,[1] and China produces 42% of the world's cigarettes. [30] [2] Within the Chinese guanxi system, tobacco is still a ubiquitous gift acceptable on any occasion, particularly outside urban areas. 1986, WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, International Tobacco Control Policy Evaluation Project, State Administration of Radio, Film and Television, "The Political Mapping of China's Tobacco Industry and Anti-Smoking Campaign", "Smoke-free list extends to healthcare facilities", From 2011, Smoking Will Be Banned Completely in the Medical and Healthcare System, China To Ban Smoking In 7 Cities: Pilot Project, China Ratifies International Tobacco Treaty, Ahead of World Expo, China acts to promote smoking controls, Chinese Health Ministry Releases Landmark Anti-Smoking Report, "Special communication: China's first historic efforts to develop a tobacco control advocacy workforce via schools of public health", China relaxes smoking ban in Beijing restaurants, China moves to reduce smoking scenes on TV, Shanghai scrambles to implement ban on smoking in indoor public places ahead of World Expo, Smoking ban helps reduce fires in Beijing, Guangdong to launch stricter smoking ban at public places, http://www.chinadaily.com.cn/life/2009-12/11/content_9161633.htm, "Contrasting male and female trends in tobacco-attributed mortality in China: evidence from successive nationwide prospective cohort studies", "Smoking causes 10% of deaths worldwide; even more in China", "The Chinese Government Is Getting Rich Selling Cigarettes", Cigarette Retail Trade in China Undergoes Drastic Changes, The most effective Alternative To Smoking, China Today: Health and Medicine Information, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, National Administration of Traditional Chinese Medicine, National Healthcare Security Administration, China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study, Protocol to Eliminate Illicit Trade in Tobacco Products, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Smoking_in_China&oldid=992128515, Wikipedia articles in need of updating from December 2015, All Wikipedia articles in need of updating, Articles with unsourced statements from March 2010, Articles with unsourced statements from February 2010, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, In addition to "strong social pressure placed upon Chinese men to smoke", it is also expected that female smoking will become "more socially acceptable as the tobacco industry increasingly targets female smokers. 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